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Development and cooperation text material 1 (People teach new curriculum standard seventh grade) Data download 'Development and cooperation' text material 1 (People teach new curriculum standard seventh grade) Development With the cooperative teaching reference a teaching goal 1. Understanding the economic development of the world is unbalanced. 2. Understand the importance of international cooperation.

Teaching requirements 1. Use data and examples to illustrate the differences in the level of economic development between developing and developed countries. 2. The use of maps indicates the regional distribution characteristics of developing and developed countries.

3. Use examples to illustrate the importance of strengthening international cooperation. 4. We can use examples to illustrate the role of international organizations such as the United Nations in international cooperation. Content analysis In order to make students realize that the economic development in the world is unbalanced, the textbook in the first black title of this chapter first arranges to talk about “countries and regions” as a background for understanding the development differences in the world.

Because in subsequent follow-ups, different countries and regions will be involved multiple times.

The countries and regions mentioned here are different from the political concepts in politics, and the focus is on a way of dividing the global region.

We have learned through the study of Chapter 2: According to the division of natural elements, the world can be divided into two major regions, land and ocean, which can be divided into seven continents and four oceans.

From the perspective of political sovereignty, the world can be divided into more than 200 countries and regions. However, this division does not cover the whole world. Antarctica does not belong to any country. This issue will be described in the next volume. Specific requirements.

2. Area, population, and political system are three aspects of the textbooks that describe the differences between countries. What students need to know here is that different countries have great differences.

Therefore, the textbooks in the maps and figures are all big countries, including large countries and large population countries. Teachers can use these countries as an example in the teaching process, and can also explain the existence of such differences in combination with current affairs hot issues.

The number of areas in the six countries listed in the figure is taken from the World Knowledge Yearbook.

The area here is only the area of ??the country's land, or the area of ??the land, not including the area of ??the country's waters.

3. The design of the activities of the “national borders” aims to enable students to develop their reading skills through reading exercises.

The cases given in the textbook combine the three types of borders divided by natural elements—river lakes, mountains, and latitude and longitude lines. Students can tell the main types of Chinese maps after reading the map. The types of national boundaries divided by factors, because the content of the students involved is less, and there is no requirement in the activities, teachers can supplement them appropriately.

Language and religion are important features of ethnic differences and are therefore often considered when demarcating, but they do not apply to situations in which several ethnic groups are intertwined.

The countries adopting geometric borders are mostly new colonial areas without borders. Because of the lack of relevant information to determine the boundary between countries, the countries concerned use the longitude or latitude as the boundary, or the two points in a straight line.

If the population on both sides of the boundary is sparse, the economic and cultural development of the residents can adapt to this division, which has little effect on the relationship between the two neighboring countries; if the residents on both sides of the boundary have more exchanges in economic and cultural development, When it comes to contact, this division will not only affect local development, but also bring potential contradictions to neighboring countries and even lead to conflict.

The national borders of African countries were formed after the West invaded Africa in the 15th century.

The European colonists disregarded the complexities of African nations, concentrated areas and traditional boundaries, forcibly dividing Africa, or by expanding the sphere of aggression, or by the longitude and latitude or straight line of the map.

The entire African continent is divided into more than 50 colonies with a total length of 46,400 kilometers, of which 44% are latitude and longitude, 30% are in a straight line, and 26% are natural borders composed of rivers, lakes and mountains.

This arbitrary division often separates the same nation, leading to the discovery of ethnic disputes and border conflicts among many African countries.

4. The textbook cooperates with the state to speak the territory, mainly to talk about one issue: the territory is one of the elements of the state, and a country must have a certain territory, regardless of its size.

So, the composition of the territory is highlighted in the activity of the activity.

The national territory is not only the space for the state to exercise sovereignty, but also the material basis for the survival and development of the country and its people.

The sovereignty of the state over the territory is an important content and expression of national sovereignty.

Territorial sovereignty refers to the highest and exclusive power a State exercises in its territory, and all persons and things within its territory are subject to its jurisdiction.

Territorial sovereignty and territorial integrity are important signs of national independence.

The Territory is a three-dimensional three-dimensional space, including land and water and its subsoil and sky, which can be divided into three parts: the lead land, the territorial water (including the inner water and the territorial sea) and the airspace, upper and lower, lower and subsoil. .

Among them, the land is the most important, it is the main component of the territory.

The collar water is attached to the collar, and the airspace and subsoil are attached to the collar and territorial water.

If the landlord changes, the territorial waters and airspace attached to the land will also change.

On the world political map, countries are separated by land boundaries, and the land surface within the land boundary mainly reflects the size of a country's territory.

For reference, land, water and airspace can be found in Resources.

5. The boundary is closely related to the territory. The position and orientation of the boundary determine the shape and area of ??the national territory. The advancement and retreat of the boundary means the expansion and contraction of the territory.

The essence of border disputes is the issue of territorial sovereignty, which directly involves national interests. If the solution is not good, it will inevitably lead to conflicts between neighboring countries.

The territorial and border disputes between neighboring countries that have occurred in history have been quite frequent, and it is not uncommon to make a border war or even a full-scale war between the countries concerned.

For example, in the Middle East, the city of Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank and the Golan Heights have been the focus of fierce competition between the Arab countries and Israel since the end of the Second World War. The border dispute between Iran and Iraq has been a long time. In the two-year war (1980-1988), the border dispute between Iraq and Kuwait led to the outbreak of the Gulf War. In South Asia, the issue of Kashmir’s ownership has not been resolved for a long time, triggering two of 1947 and 1965. The Second India-Pakistan War.

6. With regard to developed and developing countries, the differences between the two countries in terms of development level are first illustrated by examples. Then, the geographical distribution characteristics of these two countries are highlighted, and the main reasons for the backwardness of developing countries are briefly analyzed.

As for the difference in the level of development between developed and developing countries, do not quote too much economic statistics. For concepts such as per capita gross national product, as long as it is a sign of a country’s economic development level Yes, you don't have to explain the concept.

At the same time, the textbooks show that the difference in the level of development between the two countries is based on two families, but both families reflect the average living conditions of the people in their respective countries, which requires teachers to pay attention to the internal Differences.

In China, for example, China is a developing country. The urban material level of some urban families is similar to that of the Ross family, but these families cannot represent the average level of China.

In addition, there are also differences within developing countries, such as high-income oil-exporting countries (including Kuwait in the Gulf region and Brunei in Southeast Asia, with a small population, a large per capita wealth, and a relatively simple industrial structure). Industrialized countries or regions (including Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan in China, Brazil in Latin America, etc.), with a per capita GNP of nearly $10,000 or more, while other developing countries have a per capita GNP of $1,000. the following.

7. Regarding the differences in the level of social and economic development between developed and developing countries, apart from the points mentioned in the textbooks, there is a wide disparity in the level of national economic development, the structure of the sector, and the level of foreign trade.

(1) From the perspective of productivity development, a few developed countries have entered the post-industrialization stage, and some Asian, African, and Latin American countries are still in the agricultural social stage.

(2) From the perspective of departmental structure, the proportion of manufacturing in developed countries is high, the proportion of mining industry and light industry is low, the proportion of traditional manufacturing is decreasing, advanced industries are dominant, agriculture is highly mechanized, intensive, agricultural specialization and commercialization The degree of development is very high; the industrial growth of developing countries is relatively fast, generally based on resource-based and resource-processing industries, with low technology content, and the mining industry is more important. Agriculture accounts for a higher proportion of GDP, but technology Behind it, it is mainly semi-mechanized or hand-planted agriculture, with many employees and a single agricultural sector.

(3) From the perspective of foreign trade, developed countries export high-tech products (such as computers, airplanes, automobiles, communication tools, precision instruments, advanced electromechanical products, complete sets of equipment, etc.) and deep-processed agricultural products to developing countries (such as high-end products). Food, beverages, high-quality fresh-keeping fruits, meat, etc.), while developing countries mainly export primary processed products, semi-finished products or raw materials (such as clothing, toys, general mechanical and electrical products, oil, natural gas, coal, etc.) and general agricultural products to developed countries. Or primary processing of agricultural by-products (such as cotton, hemp, coffee beans, cocoa beans, etc.).

8. We talk about developed countries and developing countries in order to let students know that economic development in the world is unbalanced, but this imbalance is not absolute, but also dynamic.

Therefore, after talking about the differences between developing and developed countries and the main reasons, it is also necessary for students to understand that developing countries are also evolving, and in some respects they have even surpassed developed countries to enhance Students love the motherland and build their faith in the motherland.

Therefore, the textbook uses the Indian software industry and China's aerospace industry as an example, and designed an activity to investigate the development of local living standards to highlight the rapid development of developing countries.

A reference to the software industry in India.

9. International cooperation is multi-faceted. The textbooks are mainly based on economic cooperation.

At present, the economic ties and interdependence of countries and regions around the world are unprecedentedly close, and the cross-border movement of technology, capital, personnel and services is becoming more frequent.

Product production in a production company is no longer confined to one place, but is done jointly by different countries and regions in the world.

Strengthening international economic ties and entering the world's big market has become an important means for a country and region to develop its own economy.

In the textbook, American automobile manufacturing is taken as an example. It can be seen from the figure that the raw materials, materials and workers for producing automobiles are mainly from developing countries.

This also verifies the material described in Activity 1.

Teaching Suggestions [Country and Region] 1. After briefly describing more than 200 countries and regions in the world, the teacher instructed students to read the second natural paragraph of the text and read the picture 'The world's top six countries', asking students to find out on the 'world political map' At the same time, students are required to point to the map (world political map) and to name other countries with larger areas.

2. Instruct students to read the third paragraph of the text and read the picture “Countries with a population of more than 100 million”, asking students to find countries with a population of more than 100 million on the “World Political Map”.

With the permission of the teaching schedule, students are required to calculate the population density of the country with the largest area in the world and the population of more than 100 million.

Through this activity, students will gain a deeper understanding of some of the world's largest and populous countries.

3. Organize students to carry out activities1 to guide students to find the national boundaries of a given country on the map to determine the scope of the country, and also to pave the way for activity 2.

The countries listed in the table are not all countries across the continent. Students with sufficient resources can find other intercontinental countries by reading the map.

Activity 1 can be carried out as follows: (1) First ask students to find Egypt, Turkey, Russia and other countries on the 'World Political Map'; (2) then ask students to carefully observe these countries on the 'World Political Map' The layout of the continent and the location of the capital; (3) Finally, students are required to fill out the form on the textbook according to the previous two steps.

4. Activity 2 design: (1) Before the activity is started, the teacher gives an example of how the national boundaries are divided; (2) instruct students to read the pictures, carefully observe the national borders in the three maps A, B, and C, and let the students say this. The national borders in several figures are based on what is mainly divided (A Lake B Mountain C latitude and longitude line); (3) only the national border cases by natural boundary are given in the activity. If the students are interested, the teacher can refer to The relevant materials given by the content analysis, combined with the world political map, introduce the national boundaries divided by human boundaries.

5. Instruct students to read the fourth and fifth paragraphs of the text, and ask students to give examples of the political system of some countries according to what they know, and to understand the five principles of 'peaceful coexistence' in the world that China has consistently advocated. The students said that they should be properly summarized.

6. After reading the sixth paragraph, students are asked to find some areas on the “World Political Map”.

7. Activity 3 is an open activity. Before starting the activity, the teacher gives an example of the concept of the territory, and then organizes the students to openly discuss the issues related to the “territory” according to their own understanding and understanding. Finally, the teacher makes an appropriate summary. .

For reference to territorial disputes, see Resources.

[developed countries and developing countries] 1. According to the textbooks, the differences in the economic development levels of different countries can be introduced from the comparison maps and the differences in living conditions between developed and developing countries.

2. Instruct students to read the second paragraph of the text, identify the major developed countries listed on the “World Political Map”, and point out the regional distribution characteristics of developed and developing countries. 3. According to the text activity 1, organize students to carry out activities to guide students to understand the meanings of the terms 'North-South dialogue' and 'South-South cooperation' from a geographical perspective. 4. Guide students to analyze the per capita GNP, maps and maps of some developed countries and some developing countries in the world, and guide students to understand the gap between the economic development level of developed and developing countries. When analyzing the difference in per capita GDP between some developed countries and some developing countries, students can be instructed to draw a histogram according to the table. 5. Instruct students to read the third paragraph of the text, understand the causes of economic backwardness in developing countries, and combine the photos of B and F in the picture and the photos of the map to realize that the economy of many developing countries is developing rapidly. Teachers can supplement some relevant pictures or photos according to the conditions to enhance students' understanding of the rapid development of the economy in many developing countries. 6. Organize students to carry out activities according to the lesson activity 2. (1) Pay attention to the pre-arrangement of students to collect relevant information required by Activity 2 by interviewing parents or consulting newspapers and periodicals. (2) Organize the discussion according to the discussion questions designed in Activity 2. (3) If conditions permit, students can also use the information collected by the group to edit a small tabloid to reflect the significant changes that have taken place since the local reform and opening up, and to display and communicate in the class. [International Cooperation] 1. Instruct students to read the first paragraph of the text and organize students to discuss the picture around “A car manufacturing workshop in the United States”. Teachers can appropriately supplement pictures and materials related to international cooperation according to their cognitive level to deepen their understanding of the importance of international cooperation. 2. Organize students to carry out activities according to the text activities 1, activity 2. In Activity 1, after instructing students to read the materials and complete the A and B rings, the students were organized to discuss: “In the economic cooperation under such conditions, in addition to the loss of profits in developing countries, what aspects have been damaged? 'Instructors can make appropriate inspirations: (1) a large amount of wood is made into commodities, forest resources may be destroyed, and the ecological environment may also deteriorate; (2) oil and minerals are buried underground natural resources, mining a little It will be less, and it will be mined and sold in large quantities. The mineral resources and energy resources of the country will be greatly reduced, which is not conducive to the development of the domestic manufacturing industry. When doing activity 2, pay attention to pre-arranging the relevant information required by the student collection activities, and then let the students communicate in the classroom according to the materials collected. 3. Instruct students to read the second paragraph of the text and understand the basic purposes, main institutions and main roles of the United Nations. According to the text activity 3, organize students to carry out activities.


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