w8884 niblick rd:w8884,niblick,seems,that,will,:It seems that he will be on the glans of my rough night 'Long-term coexistence, mutual supervision, courage, and honor and disgrace' are the basic principles for multi-party cooperation in China. Participation in political discussion and de
It seems that he will be on the glans of my rough night
'Long-term coexistence, mutual supervision, courage, and honor and disgrace' are the basic principles for multi-party cooperation in China. Participation in political discussion and democratic supervision is the basic function of the democratic parties that participate in the political parties.
Practice has proved that various types of democratic supervision, including the democratic parties, are the need to promote the Chinese Communist Party as the ruling party to constantly improve itself and stabilize its ruling status, and to be the external force for the Communist Party to maintain its advanced nature. In the new era, the organization and system construction of various democratic parties will be further strengthened, the capacity for democratic supervision will be further improved, and the functions of democratic supervision should be further strengthened, so that the unique inter-party supervision role of the democratic parties will be effective. This article is based on the perspective of advancing the role of the democratic parties in the inter-party supervision of the Communist Party.
I. Historical Review: The Democratic Party’s inter-party supervision of the Communist Party is the Communist Party’s independent choice and requires the democratic parties to begin inter-party supervision of the Communist Party. During the Anti-Japanese War period, the Communist Party and the democratic parties established friendship in the process of joint resistance against Japan. Opinion, criticism, and progress together. In the process of the peace talks between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party after the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, the cooperation between the Communist Party and the various democratic parties gradually formed a tradition.
It can be said that during the period of the democratic revolution, the Communist Party of China took the supervision of accepting democratic parties and cooperation with people outside the party as the active choice for building political power. Mao Zedong made a report on 'On the Ten Major Relationships' at the enlarged meeting of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee in April 1956. For the first time, he proposed the 'long-term coexistence and mutual supervision', the basic principle of the Communist Party of China dealing with democratic parties, and proposed: 'We Consciously leave the democratic parties and let them have the opportunity to express their opinions. 'This is more beneficial to the party, the people, and socialism.'
Zhou Enlai also pointed out in 'Long-term Coexistence, Mutual Supervision' that other parties should be used to supervise the Communist Party and prevent the Communist Party from appearing in self-respect, growing bureaucracy, and getting rid of the masses. For a period of time after the founding of the People's Republic of China, the leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Mao Zedong as the core attached great importance to the democratic supervision role of the democratic parties. He agreed that supervision is better than no supervision, and the Communist Party should take the initiative to accept supervision, especially to consciously accept from democratic parties. The democratic supervision of party members is because 'some people do not have the same idea as everyone. The Communist Party always looks at the problem from one angle, and the democratic parties can look at the problem from another angle and come up with ideas. In this way, more problems are reflected and problems are dealt with. It will be more comprehensive, and it will be more favorable to make up your mind. The guidelines and policies will be more appropriate, and it will be easier to correct even if problems occur.
” Deng Xiaoping pointed out in April 1957 that the Communist Party should be supervised that the Communist Party should accept supervision from the party, supervision by the masses, supervision by democratic parties and non-party members, and let the democratic parties take another perspective. Look at the problem, come up with ideas, avoid the Communist Party's one-sided problem, and provide useful help to the work of the Communist Party.
Deng Xiaoping was keenly aware that losing the supervision, the Communist Party is prone to making big mistakes. In December 2000, General Secretary Jiang Zemin emphasized in his speech at the National United Front Work Conference: 'Without supervision, it is difficult to effectively prevent corruption.' 'Adhere to the principle of 'long-term coexistence, mutual supervision, courage, harmony, and commonality', mainly democracy. The party monitors the Communist Party. In January 2003, General Secretary Hu Jintao also clearly emphasized at the Spring Festival symposium of the non-party outsiders that 'democratic supervision is mutual, but the Communist Party of China, as the ruling party, needs to be supervised by the democratic parties.
'The Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Strengthening the Construction of the Party's Governing Capability' made by the Fourth Plenary Session of the 16th CPC Central Committee in September 2004, clearly defining 'sincerely accepting the supervision of the democratic parties' as a way to strengthen the governance of the ruling party Important measures. In February 2005, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China promulgated the 'Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Further Strengthening the Construction of Multi-Party Cooperation and Political Consultation System under the Leadership of the Communist Party of China', further clarifying the contents, forms and mechanisms of democratic supervision by democratic parties. The inter-party supervision is further standardized and institutionalized. II. Investigation of the status quo: The overall situation and problems of the Communist Party's inter-party supervision by the Communist Party (1) The contents and forms of the democratic party's inter-party supervision mainly include the following aspects: First, the formulation, implementation, and implementation of national laws, regulations, and policies; second, the implementation of duties and management of state affairs and social affairs by party committees, governments, and judicial organs at all levels; and third, opinions on central and local economic and social construction, The fourth is to build the style of party and government leadership Supervision in the construction of a clean government, etc. The form of supervision includes the following aspects: First, the use of party members as the representatives of the people's congresses at all levels, CPPCC members, and political and economic supervisors; and second, to carry out or participate in the organization of relevant organizations. Investigate, inspect, and conduct special inspection activities and put forward opinions; thirdly, provide supervisory opinions on the situation of understanding and mastering at work and in life; fourth, perform party members’ supervision duties in their positions of employment, etc. The content of supervision by democratic parties is Major and important matters, supervision needs to standardize a powerful platform.
In practice, relying on the platform of the CPPCC, the CPPCC meets regularly every year. There are organizations specializing in proposals and suggestions in the CPPCC organization. In other forms of supervision, the democratic parties are invited to participate, and the initiative and enthusiasm of the democratic party supervision will be affected. As far as the content of supervision is concerned, most of the practice is general economic and social affairs supervision. The focus of supervision is more on specific matters. The supervision is not focused on the inter-party supervision of the ruling behavior of the CPC, and it does not effectively reflect the party. The characteristics of supervision and political supervision.(2) The supervision of the democratic party's inter-party supervision intensity of the democratic parties is a political supervision conducted through the submission of opinions, criticisms and suggestions on the basis of adhering to the four basic principles. Such supervision and supervision by the National People's Congress and administrative supervision Compared with judicial supervision, it is not mandatory in the sense of tools and does not have immediate execution power. In the specific supervision process, many supervisions are often carried out in the name of individual members of the party, and opinions, criticisms and suggestions are put forward in the collective name of the party. The proportion is not high, so its influence is weak. For example, since the second session of the 11th National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, a total of 5,820 proposals have been submitted. After review, 5,218 cases were filed, of which 4,932 were members, accounting for 9% of the proposals of the eight democratic parties and the National Federation of Industry and Commerce. %, 8 people's group proposals, 10 CPPCC special committee proposals, 29 sector and group proposals.
 A total of 5,678 proposals were submitted during the year since the Third Session of the 11th National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. After review, 5,300 cases were filed.Among them, 4,965 members were proposed, accounting for 285% of the total number of proposals from the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the National Federation of Industry and Commerce, accounting for 8% of the proposals of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the National Federation of Industry and Commerce, 3 proposals by the people's organizations, 44 proposals for the sector and the group, and 3 proposals for the special committee.  A total of 6,976 proposals were submitted during the year since the Fourth Session of the 11th National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.
After review, 5,603 cases were filed, of which 5,288 were proposed by members, accounting for 276% of the proposals of the eight democratic parties and the National Federation of Industry and Commerce, accounting for 5% of the proposals of the people's organizations, 29 of the constituencies and group proposals. 2 proposals for the special committee.  (3) The effectiveness of inter-party supervision by democratic parties The effectiveness of inter-party supervision by all democratic parties. In the report on the proposal of the CPPCC meeting at all levels, the submission and handling of relevant proposals are described in more detail in the work report of the proposal. The contribution of the CPPCC proposal to promoting reform, opening up, and modernization has been fully affirmed.
In the annual summary and report of the democratic parties, it can also be reflected that the democratic parties have done a lot of work.
However, the inter-party supervision work and effectiveness of the democratic parties are not mentioned in the work reports of the party congresses at all levels and the government work report.
The democratic supervision of the democratic parties has played a significant role in promoting policy formulation and work development at all levels of party committees and governments, and lacks corresponding feedback and affirmation.
This will affect the in-depth development of the supervision of the democratic parties and is not conducive to the effective mobilization of democratic party supervision. 3. Theoretical inquiry: The basis and positioning power of the Communist Party for the inter-party supervision of the Communist Party can only play a positive role under effective supervision. Since the Communist Party of China is the ruling party, it holds the political power of the state, and creates autocracy to avoid absolute power. Corruption, it is necessary to establish a sound and effective supervision system and mechanism. In the supervision system of the people's congress supervision, administrative supervision, judicial supervision, democratic party supervision, and mass supervision, the supervision of democratic parties has unique value.
The democratic parties are the participating parties. Democratic supervision is one of the two functions of “participating in politics and democratic supervision”. It can be said that the democratic supervision function occupies half of its responsibilities. How can this function be used to measure the degree of political participation and The effect of the Democratic Party’s supervision of the Communist Party is inter-party supervision. The democratic parties are placed in the Communist Party’s policy of the Communist Party. They maintain a certain distance from the Communist Party as a friendly party, that is, they retain themselves and have certain rational supervision advantages.
Therefore, the democratic parties should have a clear basis and accurate positioning of the inter-party supervision of the Communist Party.
(1) Basis of Democratic Party's Inter-Party Supervision of the Communist Party At the end of 1989, on the basis of consultations with various democratic parties, the CPC Central Committee issued the 'Multi-Party Cooperation and Political Consultation System of the CPC Central Committee on Adhering to and Improving the Leadership of the Communist Party of China' The Opinions clearly state that 'long-term coexistence, mutual supervision, courage, harmony and dissatisfaction' is the basic policy of cooperation between the Communist Party of China and the democratic parties.
The democratic parties are an important channel that reflects the opinions of the people and plays a supervisory role.
'This document stipulates very clearly that democratic supervision is a basic function that the democratic parties should perform.
The basic points for the Democratic Party to participate in politics are: to participate in state power, to participate in the consultation of national policies and the selection of state leaders, to participate in the management of state affairs, and to participate in the formulation and implementation of national policies, policies, laws and regulations. The general principle of exerting the supervisory role of the democratic parties is to promote democracy and broaden the way on the basis of the four basic principles, and encourage and support democratic parties and non-party members to submit opinions, criticisms and suggestions on the principles and policies of the party and the state. , to know everything, to speak, and to be brave in insisting on correct opinions. The document shows that the role of the democratic party in monitoring is the conscious requirement of the Communist Party of China to strengthen and improve leadership.
It is particularly noteworthy that the basic point of the Democratic Party's participation in politics is the major national issues. The scope of supervision is also based on major issues and involves various tasks.
In 2005, the Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Further Strengthening the Multi-Party Cooperation and Political Consultation System under the Leadership of the Communist Party of China (hereinafter referred to as the '2005 Opinions') further clarified that the Chinese Communist Party and the democratic parties exercise mutual supervision.
This kind of supervision is a political supervision through the submission of opinions, criticisms and suggestions on the basis of adhering to the four basic principles. It is an important part of China's socialist supervision system. Since the Communist Party of China is in a leading and ruling position, it is even more necessary to consciously accept the supervision of the democratic parties.
The 'Opinions' stipulate that party committees should further broaden the channels for democratic supervision, earnestly improve the democratic supervision mechanism, consciously accept supervision, and seriously study the criticisms put forward by the democratic parties, and provide timely feedback to protect democratic parties and non-party democratic supervision. The right to be equal. This provision further clarifies the series of obligations of the party committee to ensure that the democratic parties perform their supervisory duties.
Make party-based democratic supervision more justifiable, justifiable, and obligatory. (II) The orientation of the democratic party to the inter-party supervision of the Communist Party The supervision of the democratic parties in China and the starting point, supervision means, and supervision effect of the opposition party and the opposition party in the Western mode are different. They are the 'constructive' supervision of the Communist Party of China. 'Destructive' supervision that has no substitute purpose; it is the supervision of good intentions and norms, rather than the supervision of mutual conflict and intrigue; the effect of supervision is 'health and disgrace, honor and disgrace', instead of seizing power through supervision.
The essence of the supervision of the democratic parties is summarized in three points. First, the supervision of the democratic parties is bound by the four basic principles. It is the supervision under the leadership of the Communist Party and part of the ruling behavior of the Communist Party. The second is the supervision of the democratic parties. Sexual supervision rather than competitive supervision, that is, the purpose of supervision is to help the Communist Party to self-improve and progress, and to stabilize the ruling status of the Communist Party. Third, the supervision of the democratic parties is flexible supervision, not rigid supervision, and whether the supervision opinions are adopted depends on the consciousness of the Communist Party. Choice, no mandatory in the sense of a tool.
In short, the supervision of the democratic parties is a high-level non-authoritarian political supervision. The nature of democratic supervision of democratic parties in China is determined by the nature of China's multi-party cooperation and the nature of socialist democracy. It is also determined by China's political structure and political system.
If the democratic supervision of the democratic parties is turned into legal supervision, the opinions and criticisms put forward by the democratic parties have legal effects, which will not only lose the unique advantages of democratic supervision, but also change the long-standing courage, honor and disgrace formed by the Communist Party and the democratic parties. The intimate relationship between the same boat and the life and death, and inevitably leads to the diversification of the country's political power, changing the road to the development of China's socialist democracy and the basic pattern of the political system.
 In summary, the democratic parties should accurately position the inter-party supervision of the Communist Party.
Studying the positioning of democratic party democratic supervision should involve three systems or structures. First, democratic party supervision should have its due status in the Chinese political party system composed of democratic parties and the ruling party. Second, democratic party supervision is in the democratic party. The proper status in the socialist supervision system with Chinese characteristics, and the third is the position of democratic party democratic supervision in the development of socialist democratic politics with Chinese characteristics.
 In February 2011, General Secretary Hu Jintao pointed out at the Spring Festival symposium of the non-party outsiders that the magnificent history and practice of the 90 years since the founding of the Communist Party of China has fully proved that the minds are united in the same spirit and on the same goal. Comrades in action are the most distinctive characteristics of the multi-party cooperation and political consultation system under the leadership of the Communist Party of China. They are a powerful guarantee for us to continuously win the revolution, construction, and reform. General Secretary Hu Jintao’s 'concentric' thought further clarified the party-relationship in the new era. It is the latest development of the multi-party cooperation theory in the new era and has played a leading role in the practice of multi-party cooperation.
Therefore, the democratic party's inter-party supervision of the Communist Party should not be entangled in the details from the perspective of the democratic parties. The quality of supervision is not forced to be adopted or not, and the significance of the process does not care about the outcome.
can be expressed in three words, 'great, honest, dedication.'
From the perspective of the Communist Party, we should broaden the channels so that the wings of supervision can be smooth, and listen to opinions without regard to whether the words are sharp or not, and take the essence of supervision opinions with fire eyes. Expressed in three words, 'unblocked, sincere, truth-seeking.' In summary, the party's inter-party supervision of the democratic parties should be non-authoritarian, non-utilitarian, friendly, and cooperative. Fourth, the countermeasure research: the democratic party's regulation and optimization of the inter-party supervision of the Communist Party and the optimization of the democratic party's inter-party supervision of the Communist Party include two aspects, namely, the behavior of the supervisor and the behavior of the supervised person. Only when the two reach a harmonious resonance can they play the most Good effect.
(I) Standardizing and Optimizing the Inter-Party Supervision of Democratic Parties First, all democratic parties and their members should establish a correct sense of inter-party supervision. The democratic parties should strengthen the education management of party members and require party members to have a deep understanding of the basis and positioning of the democratic parties and to clarify their responsibilities. Pay attention to the awareness of the Democratic Party's participating parties, including upholding the leadership of the Communist Party of China, the awareness of seeking common ground while reserving differences, the awareness of participating in political discussion and democratic supervision, the overall situation and the sense of urgency.
It is necessary to solve the problem that the concept of supervision is not strong, and also to avoid the problem of abuse of supervision power to interfere with the normal work of relevant organs and individuals.
In the process of supervision, pay attention to the appropriateness of supervision to enhance unity, promote political harmony, improve work efficiency, and maintain the image of party committees and party members as the starting point and destination. Members of the democratic parties must not only resist the Western political party view but also overcome the 'fitism theory' of inaction. Second, strengthen the organizational leadership of democratic supervision within the party. Formulate and improve the internal supervision and management regulations and methods of the party, establish a central supervisory committee with the party's executive deputy chairman as the director, and establish provincial and municipal democratic party organizations to strengthen the internal supervision of the party and strengthen the organization and management of the inter-party supervision. .
Establish a specialized agency with democratic supervision as its basic task to deal with matters related to democratic supervision by the democratic parties to the ruling party and the government.
Strengthen the review, filing, and tracking of the supervision cases proposed by the party members in the name of the party. Establish a supervision mechanism, improve the mechanism, and jointly issue or issue a mechanism in the name of the party to improve the quality of the supervision case and enhance the influence of the supervision case. Formulate evaluation and incentive mechanisms for party supervision work, and stimulate the enthusiasm of party members to participate in supervision work.
Third, unite all forces to enhance the joint efforts of democratic parties to conduct inter-party supervision.
'There are four modes of supervision and restriction on power, the power mode that restricts power by power, the right mode that restricts power by power, the institutional model that restricts power by system or legal system, and the unification of law, rights, and power. A hybrid model that restricts the means of power.
These models are not mutually exclusive and usually co-exist in a political community, complement each other and work together to exercise supervision and control over public power.  Thus, inter-party supervision of democratic parties is state supervision. Part of the system must be combined with other forms of supervision to play a supervisory role.
Encourage supervision activities in the name of party or party, and propose supervision cases.
The democratic parties and their members should strengthen their liaison with the masses, groups, and units they contact, conduct in-depth investigations and research, and grasp the most authentic and comprehensive situation. If necessary, they can contact other party members for assistance. We will take advantage of the different liaisons of different parties and different members to jointly carry out investigations and studies, and put forward supervisory opinions on this basis.
Party democratic supervision should also be combined with supervision methods such as supervision by the people's congress, supervision by the masses, supervision by the masses, administrative supervision, and legal supervision, and be carried out in multiple platforms and channels.
(2) Standardizing and optimizing the Communist Party's acceptance of the supervision of the democratic parties First of all, the Communist Party organizations and members set up to accept supervision is the concept of self-improvement. Mao Zedong pointed out: 'Why should the democratic parties supervise the Communist Party? This is because a party like the same person needs to hear different voices in his ear.'  Deng Xiaoping pointed out in 1979: 'For our party, it is even more necessary. Listening to different opinions from various parties, including various democratic parties, it is necessary to accept criticism and supervision from all sides in order to facilitate brainstorming, learn from each other's strengths, overcome difficulties, and reduce mistakes. ' The Communist Party and Communist Party members should consciously accept party supervision as self-optimization. Self-improvement methods and methods, taking the supervision of the party as a friend's help, accept it with a happy attitude, sincere manner, and generous style. Second, broaden the channels for accepting democratic supervision.
According to the '2005 Opinions' requirement, first, the main person in charge of the party committee should hold regular meetings to listen to the opinions of the leaders of the democratic parties and non-party members on the leadership team and their members. Second, the annual construction of the party's work style and clean government Corruption work informs the democratic parties about the situation and listens to opinions; the third is to further improve the work system of special personnel, broaden the fields of government personnel and judicial organs to hire special personnel, clarify the duties and rights of special personnel, and effectively play their role; fourth, party committees and The government-sponsored inspections, other special inspections, and law enforcement supervision on the implementation of the central government's important policies and policies, and the construction of the party's work style and clean government may invite the leaders of the democratic parties to participate.
The above provisions are focused on implementation in practice and focus on the effectiveness of implementation.
Third, improve the democratic supervision mechanism. According to the '2005 Opinions', the party committee must earnestly improve the democratic supervision mechanism and consciously accept supervision. First, we must establish a sound system in the informed, communication, and feedback links, timely report important situations and major issues, and smooth channels for democratic supervision. Second, we must seriously study the criticisms put forward by the democratic parties and provide timely feedback.
The party committee and its leading cadres must sincerely accept the supervision of the democratic parties, encourage and support the democratic parties to do everything they know, and they must be brave enough to adhere to the correct opinions and be friends of the Communist Party of China; to protect the democratic parties and The legitimate right of democratic supervision of party members. In the specific work, the system of counterparty between the party committee and the relevant government departments and the democratic parties should be established and improved.
Specifically includes: daily information exchange system, major event notification system, invitation to participate in important meetings and major event systems, conscious acceptance of democratic supervision system, joint research system, counterpart contact regular meeting system, supervision and communication system.
The party committees and government offices at all levels maintain regular contacts with the United Front Department and the democratic parties. The party committees and relevant government departments should designate leaders to take over the counterparts and determine the specific departments and personnel responsible for liaison. Fourth, scientifically evaluate the democratic supervision role of the democratic parties. The democratic supervision of the democratic parties objectively promotes and promotes the ruling of the Communist Party. This role should have corresponding evaluations and responses in the work reports of party committees and governments at all levels. Such evaluations and responses should be targeted and avoid general, broad, and large-scale representations.
Therefore, the democratic parties can get a 'supervised effect' response from the official documents or reports of party committees and governments, which is encouraged and affirmed. Therefore, in the work reports of party committees and governments at all levels, the acceptance of democratic supervision should be summarized as part of it. Conclusion The inter-party supervision of the Communist Party of China to the Communist Party is an important part of China's supervision system. It is an important part of the multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the Communist Party of China. It is a form of supervision with Chinese characteristics and a long-term historical choice. It has its own Unique advantages.
Over the years, the Democratic Party’s inter-party supervision of the Communist Party has achieved many achievements under the impetus of various forces. However, there are still problems like this.
We should further improve this kind of supervision and rely on the joint efforts of the ruling party and the participating parties to make their role work well and make the 'soft' supervision produce a 'hard' effect, thus promoting the building of socialist democracy in China. Author: Fly Skynet All rights reserved.
The author and original source and this statement must be indicated by a link when reprinting.
Although he didn't want to make such a big show, when a person personally arrived at a certain position, he would get a response
Copyright Notice：Original article of this site, in2018/07/26 w8884 niblick rd，由 Alphr Publish。More